First and foremost, what is a Programming Language?
Programming languages are special types of languages that we use to communicate with the computer. Obviously, since a computer is a machine, we cannot communicate with it in the same way that we do with other humans. As a result, programmers invented a range of different languages that allow us to speak with computers.
We pass the commands and instructions written in any particular Programming language to the computer using a “Compiler” which is then converted by the “Interpreter” to such a language which the computer actually understands i.e just 0 and 1, the Binary numbers.
Furthermore, programming languages are the tools that enable all of those interactive websites, applications, and games to exist. Anything you want to instruct a computer to do, you’ll need a programming language, from making use of a simple calculator application to traveling to Mars.
There are two types of programming languages -
Low-level languages - Machine-dependent (0s and 1s) Programming Language
Like Machine Language and Assembly Language
High-Level Languages - Easy to read, write, and maintain language
Like Python, Java, C++, etc.
Presently, all those interactive software programs and websites you find all over the Internet are mostly written using these High-level languages. But these have become all old now and have limited capabilities.
This brings up the concern that new features and ways of thinking will develop, causing perfectly crafted languages to become obsolete and non-ideal. As technology evolves, our mind evolves and hence programming languages must also adapt to this change.
More isn't always great when it comes to programming language abilities. It's perplexing when the same algorithm may be expressed in a variety of ways.
So here is a list of the latest Programming languages which actually are kind of more friendly and capable enough to deal with newer advancements in technology.
GoLang was designed at Google, by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson in 2007 and released as an open-source programming language in 2009.
It is an excellent low-level language that has a lot of similarities in terms of features with C and C++ but because of the absence of those complicated syntaxes as present in them, Go is quite easy to learn.
It is a perfect language when it comes to building web servers, data pipelines, and even machine-learning apps. However, there are Some disadvantages: Signed and unsigned numbers, as well as integer sizes, cannot be mixed.
There are no generics or inheritance. Also, you need to use curly brackets instead of parenthesis.
(Also Read - Machine Learning for Beginners)
It is amongst the most well-designed programming languages. And that is because it has been designed by JetBrains who requires a very little introduction as they are masters in delivering tools to write clean, efficient, and sleek code.
Android app development, web application development, desktop application development all can be built by Kotlin. Kotlin can be described as a quicker, lighter, and more elegant version of JAVA.
Previously, Android development could only be done with JAVA, but since Kotlin’s release, it has become the language of choice for this task as it has less code duplication, fewer null pointer errors, and compatibility with Java, according to the Android developer site.
Do you know the best part about this language - It remained in beta for six years, and was constantly improving during that time. Many important features were introduced during that period and yet they were removed in the first final version of this language as the parent company realized during the beta phase that those features did more harm than good.
Latest Programming Languages
Python 3 is a far more diverse version of its last version Python 2. It was introduced in 2008, and it was a substantial change in the language as it was not fully backward-compatible earlier, and many Python 2 codes won't run without modification on Python 3.
Python 2 was abandoned in 2020, with version 2.7.18. So, what's the big deal about switching? Python 3 features improved type safety and more intuitive code. It's easy to understand the differences between binary code, Unicode, and plain text. Also a funny fact, Python 3 faced a major revamp by changing the output syntax to print() from print in Python 2
Recommended blog - Web Scraping with Python
Python 3 has support for cutting-edge techniques such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, data science, and data mining. Python 3 has a huge and strong development community behind it hence in case of any difficulty obtaining assistance is quite easy.
In comparison to previous versions, the Python language is easier to learn. Also, it offers a huge set of libraries and powerful toolsets.
Recommended blog - Text Mining
The Typescript compiler checks for type inconsistencies and screens out compile-time errors to prevent runtime issues. It's also well-organized and simple to comprehend and understand. Its broad toolbox accelerates the application process. Type inference gives the means to specify the geometry of an object, allowing TypeScript to test that your code is working correctly and giving better documentation.
Type inference lets you acquire a lot of power without writing any additional code, therefore creating types is optional with TypeScript.
ELM was developed as a Harvard student’s thesis in 2012. Today this language is one of the favorites for front-end developers all around the world. It is a functional Programming Language and is used to develop Web Applications and web browser-based GUI.
The main focus of this language is usability, efficiency, and resilience. It helps developers create frameworks without worrying about the declarative elements of HTML and CSS.
There are other advantages of ELM like it has the Type system which prevents the expression of invalid or incorrect data, because of which developers have to worry less about whether their code will cover all the edge cases or not.
(Related to this Blog - Improve your Programming Knowledge)
ELM is also famous among developers for having no runtime exceptions. If the data they defined isn't there or invalid, programmers must tell the software what to do. If something is missing or broken, the compiler can assist developers in locating the problematic code and correct it.
Not only is ELM a great programming language, but it also offers a fantastic ecosystem. You can locate all you need in one single location if you need to use an external package (library).
Julia was developed by MIT and launched in 2012. It is a high-level Programming language that comes with a large Mathematical library, a parallel distributed execution program, a powerful compiler, and numerical precision all included in one.
It is basically designed to overcome the limitations that Python and other such data processing languages have. Julia can be used as a general-purpose programming language but because it holds such high precision as well as mathematical applications it is used for Numerical Analysis and also Computational Science. It features syntax which is as beginner-friendly as Python and as snappy as C.
According to Nature, Jane Herriman, who is studying materials science at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, says that she has seen tenfold-faster runs since rewriting her Python codes in Julia.
Michael Stumpf, a systems biologist and self-styled Julia proselytizer at the University of Melbourne, Australia, who has ported computational models from R, has seen an 800-fold improvement. “You can do things in an hour that would otherwise take weeks or months,” he says.
(Learn More about Julia - Use of Julia in Data Science )
As the world around us is changing and evolving every day and we are achieving the prospects of a better future with advancements in technology every minute, We need to innovate more and for that, we need to go beyond our capabilities. New programming languages will always be required to increase our expressiveness and help us overcome the limitations that its predecessor had. Programming languages change in tandem with the programming industry. Consider the for-loop. Earlier it was just a when-loop. We evolved and so they evolved.