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Difference Between Economic Value and Market Value

  • Hrithik Saini
  • Feb 25, 2022
  • Updated on: Feb 07, 2022
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Economic value and market value are two well-established ideas in contemporary economics and finance, and they are significant components in the model of a company's future potential development (and the future of its share price). However, these principles are frequently misunderstood, with economic worth frequently being neglected outright.


In this section, we will understand the difference between economic value and market value individually. Further, we will get to know more about their added versions in the market sector. So, let’s get started.


Also Read | Economic Development



What is Economic Value?


An economic value is a measure set on a product by an individual member that may be stated, at least in theory, in terms of some readiness to pay for the good or some reimbursement for foregoing the good. Economic value may also be defined as the benefit obtained from a product or service to a person, a business, or society as a whole.


Economists typically believe that people, not governments, are the greatest assessors of whatever they want. As a result, economic value theory is founded on human preferences and decisions. 


People express their preferences through the choices and sacrifices they make when faced with specific restrictions, such as limited cash or time.


Also Read | Types of Economic Theories


Advantages of Economic Value


  • It can be utilized to capture several of the values that markets are now ignoring. The economic cost of environmental pollution, for example, can be used to control the magnitude of pollution prevention.


  • It may be used to assess both costs and benefits in financial times. The value information may also be used to help the business grow for expenditures that will provide economic value but just not necessarily monetary return.


  • It can be utilized to capture some of the value that markets are now ignoring. The financial consequences of environmental pollution, for example, can be used to determine the level of taxes and duties.



What is Market Value?


The market value of the investment is the amount that this would fetch on the market, or the value that the investing market assigns to a certain equity or firm. Market value is also commonly used to refer to the market capitalisation of a publically leading company, which is calculated by multiplying the number of shares outstanding in the stock market.


Exchange-traded assets, such as stocks and futures, have the easiest market value to measure because their marketplace values are generally publicised and easily accessible, but over-the-counter securities, such as stocks and bonds, are a bit more impossible to tell.


Advantages of Market Value


  • One advantage of evaluating market value is that you can examine an item's sales cycle and determine when you can obtain top pay for it.


  • Making enhancements to the product might change the market value. A home's market value, for example, can be boosted by upgrading it and adding a pool to the property.


  • To determine market worth, you must have some form of historical pricing data to compare it to. New or one-of-a-kind things sometimes do not have a market value. One of the most depressing aspects of market valuation is this.



Market Value Added Vs Economic Value Added


  1. Market Value Added


Reduce the invested capital in the firm from its overall market value to determine the Market Value Added (MVA). The total market value of a firm may be calculated by adding the market value of its stock to the book value of its debt. 


Another approach to think about Market Value Added (MVA) is to evaluate how much money investors invested into the firm and then calculate how much money they might gain if they sold all of their shares. The Market Value Added (MVA) is what distinguishes these two. The higher this figure, the better the potential for shareholder value maximisation.


  1. Significance of MVA


Since its debut, the Market Value Added (MVA) calculation has provided a summary of how successfully the firm has maximise shareholder value. It expresses an opinion about the company's utilisation of investment money in the past, present, and future. 


A greater figure is preferable since it indicates that shareholder value has improved throughout the course of the company's existence. It is an aggregate figure since it gives information about the entire firm. This is due to the fact that numbers such as market value and investment ratio apply to the entire company.


  1. Economic Value Added


To compute the Economic Value Added (EVA), you must first calculate the capital requirements, operating profit, and net operating income after deductions. Capital charges may be calculated by multiplying capital investment by the weighted average cost of capital. 


To calculate the operational profit, subtract the operating expenditures from the net sales. Subtract taxes to arrive at the Net Operating Profit After Taxes (NOPAT). Subtract capital charges from NOPAT to calculate Economic Value Added (EVA).


  1. Significance of Economic Value Added EVA


The EVA calculation evaluates a company's performance over time. This allows you to calculate performance for a specific year and compare it to previous years. A larger figure is preferable since it indicates that the flow of earnings during the time in question has increased. 


Unlike the Market Value Added (MVA), the Economic Value Added (EVA) units may be calculated inside the firm rather than across the entire organisation. You may, for example, compute the EVA of departments and product lines. This enables for greater in-depth examination and comparisons.


  1. What Each Measures?


The Market Value Added (MVA) largely shows a company's operational capability. Alternatively, a firm's success in maximising shareholder profits. Economic Value Added (EVA), on the other hand, is a measure of a company's managerial efficiency.


  1. Cost of Opportunity


Market Value Added (MVA) does not take into account the opportunity costs of any other possibilities that a corporation may encounter. Economic Value Added (EVA) calculation, on the other hand, incorporates opportunity cost in the form of the needed return that investors expect.


  1. Micro Level of Economic Value Added (EVA) & Market Value Added (MVA)


The Economic Value Added (EVA) may be simply calculated for departments and product lines. This assists and contributes to the Management's ability to make different crucial investment choices pertaining to these areas. Market Value Added (MVA) for departments and product lines, on the other hand, cannot be calculated. It is computed for the entire firm.


Also Read | Difference between Micro and Macro Economics



MVA vs EVA – A Comparison


Market Value Added (MVA) and Economic Value Added (EVA) have numerous distinctions, yet they also have a connection. One method of calculating EVA is to compute the net present value of all a company's current and future cash flows.


As a result, MVA is the same as NPV (Net Present Value), and it may be calculated simply by adding the enterprise value of all future Economic Value Added (EVA)s. This is due to the fact that discounted Economic Value Added (EVA) and discounted FCF are mathematically equivalent.


Because a firm's market value is determined by how investors anticipate it to continue in the future, market value is susceptible to differences in present EVA and expectations for EVA improvements.




  1. Market value is the price or quantity somebody is inclined to purchase in the market and is determined by supply and demand.


  1. The evaluation of the benefit obtained from an item or service to a person or a firm is known as economic value.


  1. Economic value is frequently greater than market value since it is the utmost price that someone is prepared to pay for an item or service.


Also Read | Cash Flow Analysis





It is insufficient for an investment to be lucrative. Investors want to know how much money they can expect to make. There's a strong reason for this strategy: stocks are risky. Before you invest in a company's shares, you should consider if the expected return warrants the risk. 


Market value added and economic value added are metrics of management performance that can assist you in determining if a certain company's stock is a smart investment.

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