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Introduction to Database Management System

  • Utsav Mishra
  • Feb 18, 2022
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Hello, remember those exam circulars you used to get when you were in school? Or those school diaries? Or even the timesheet that you fill every day before leaving work?


All these had one thing in common. Guessing that yet? They all had data arranged in a specific format. All of these were a medium for us to store data in a better way rather than keeping it scattered. 


Just imagine getting 5 different slips for examination schedules of 5 different subjects. Sounds odd? Yes, it is. Here data is unarranged and is taking a lot of unnecessary space too. But when this data is arranged together in a better way it is called to be in a “Database”.


A database is a logically organised collection of structured data. In the electronic world, it is a collection of structured data kept in an electronic device. This database is usually managed by something called a database management system or DBMS.


In this blog, we are going to look at the same. So, let us begin with some really valuable information on what a database management system is.


What is DBMS?


A database management system (DBMS) is a piece of software that allows users to conveniently manage databases. It gives users access to the database's fundamental data and allows them to interact with it. These actions can range from simple data queries to the creation of database schemas that have a significant impact on the database structure.


Furthermore, DBMS allow users to interact with a database securely and concurrently while protecting data integrity. (here)


A database management system is essentially a computerised data-keeping system. Users of the system are given the ability to execute a variety of actions on it, such as manipulating the data in the database or managing the database structure itself. The data structures or types of Database Management Systems (DBMSs) are classified into different types. 


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Types of DBMS


There are mainly 4 types of DBMS. they are:


1. Hierarchical DBMS


Data is stored in a parent-children relationship node in a hierarchical database management system (hierarchical DBMSs) paradigm. In a hierarchical database, entries contain information about their groups of parent/child connections in addition to real data.


Data is grouped into a tree-like form in a hierarchical database model. The information is kept in the form of a set of fields, each of which has just one value. The entries are connected by links that form a parent-child relationship. Each child entry in a hierarchical database model has only one parent. A parent can have more than one child.


2. Relational Database Management System


A relational database stores information in the form of tables with rows and columns. This setup makes it simple to find and retrieve specific data in the database. It's called "relational" because the data in each table is linked to one another. 


Tables can also be linked to one another. Tables or files containing data are referred to as relations (tuples) in relational databases, and they are defined by rows (or records) and columns (or attributes) referred to as fields. Each table contains a key field that primarily identifies each record (row) and the relationships between entries in other tables (or linked).


This type of relational structure allows you to conduct queries that retrieve data from numerous tables at the same time. A relational database management system (RDBMS) may also provide a visual representation of the data. It may, for example, provide data in a spreadsheet-like table that allows you to examine and even change individual data pieces.


You can create forms in some RDMBS apps to make entering, modifying, and removing data easier. The RDBMS category includes the majority of well-known database management systems. 


Oracle Database, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, and IBM DB2 are just a few examples. Although some of these tools can manage non-relational databases, they are usually used to handle relational databases.


3. Object-oriented DBMS


We must discuss the use of object-oriented programming in this Model. More than only the storage of programming language objects is required. The semantics of C++ and Java have improved thanks to object DBMS. 


It includes native language compatibility as well as full-featured database development capabilities. It offers database support to object-oriented programming languages


This method is analogous to developing applications and databases in a consistent data model and language environment. Less code is required, more natural data modelling is used, and code bases are easier to maintain. With a little more work, object developers can create comprehensive database apps.


The integrity of object-oriented programming language systems and consistent systems is the object-oriented database derivation. The cyclical management of both persistent data, as found in databases, and transient data, as found in performing programmes, gives object-oriented databases their power. (Source)


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Need of DBMS


The following are some of the benefits of using a database management system:


  • The ease with which data can be accessed


Different files are created in the file system for each user, carrying the data that they can access. In addition, in order for the user to extract data from the file system, code or programme is required. 


By providing users access and deciding which and how many parts of data they can access from the database, DBMS eliminates redundancy. 


Users may quickly access data and define the sort of information they want to extract. Users can have simple access to data in a DBMS by using queries.


  • Data Storage and Management


In the file system, data cannot be stored in the form of objects. In the real world, data is typically kept in the form of things rather than files. As a result, an application is needed to map the data into objects that may be used later.


Data can be directly saved in the form of objects in DBMS. In a database management system (DBMS), users can query the database, whereas, in a file system, code is developed to handle, save, and scan data.


  • File Management Made Simple and Efficient


As files are indexed in the file system, the full database executes each query action. When compared to DBMS, where objects are indexed based on data attributes, it takes a long time. The difficult task of memory management becomes simple. Data retrieval is much faster than with a standard file system.


  • Avoiding duplication and redundancy


The term "redundancy" refers to the occurrence of the same information on many occasions. The data may be stored in the file system multiple times. 


If a student takes two courses at the same university, say English and Science, his general information may be saved in both departments. It causes data access and storage to take a long time. 


In all domains, it also leads to data inconsistencies. Data normalisation is a technique used in relational databases to avoid duplicating data.


  • Database Consistency


Integrity restrictions must be met by any data saved in the database. A database, for example, might contain the titles of numerous personnel of a company, such as HR, account specialist, engineer, analyst, project manager, and so on. Then there's a list of employees who work under these titles. 


A database management system ensures that an employee is assigned to only one of the database's job profiles. It contributes to database integrity preservation.


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The blog ends here, data is the prime need in today’s technological world. I wouldn’t be wrong in saying that the world functions on data. That’s why arrangement and management of data are a prime need in this world. That’s what a database management system is for.


Now you must have known enough about the basics of DBMS. Until you discover more, Good luck! We will be back soon with more.

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