Operating systems were created when vacuum tube semiconductor devices, the first computing services available to people, were launched. The speed at which they execute operations is the only distinction between computers from that era and those we use today. Operating systems have grown tremendously and undergone significant changes over time. One such example is Linux, which Richard Stallman introduced in 1983 as a GNU foundational project and quickly rose to fame on a global scale. Only the Intel 80x86 processor was supported by Linux. Support has been extended over time so that Linux may now function on a variety of additional processors. One of the very few operating systems available today that can run on a variety of processors, including Intel IA-32, Intel IA-64, AMD, DEC, PowerPC, Motorola, SPARC, and IBM S/390, is Linux.
In that it implements the UNIX API and incorporates numerous concepts from UNIX, Linux is similar to UNIX in this regard. Linux, however, is not a direct descendant of anyone UNIX distribution.
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What is Open Source?
Although Linux's developer, Linus Torvalds, can be credited with popularising open source and even the more general principles behind the democratization of technology, he wasn't the idea's originator.
Richard Stallman referred to as "the father of open source," is deserving of that honor. He felt that everyone should be able to freely and publicly use software to cooperate with others. He launched the first free operating system, the GNU project, in 1983. To further assist the developing community, he then established the Free Software Foundation in 1985.
The guiding premise behind open source and Linux is the notion of freedom and cooperation. It resembles other operating systems like Windows, macOS, and iOS in many aspects. Although they serve the same objective functionally, they differ in some significant ways, with open source serving as the primary motivating factor.
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Beginnings of The Linux Foundation:
The concept of a fully open-source and free operating system was still unique in the 1990s, when the majority of operating systems were based on proprietary UNIX solutions like AIX, HP-UX, Ultrix, Sinix, etc.
The introduction of the open-source OS Linux, developed in 1991 by student Linus Torvalds at the University of Helsinki, substantially altered the situation, though it took some time at first. Even though Linux has received high praise from IT professionals, the IT community did not begin to recognize the benefits that Linux offered until the late 1990s.
Fujitsu and SUSE both joined SAP in building the SAP Linux Lab in Waldorf in 1999. Both Fujitsu and SUSE were early adopters who saw the potential of the Linux operating system, but it was Fujitsu who in 1999 obtained the first official SAP benchmark that was published on Linux. When compared to proprietary solutions back then, Linux's significance was still relatively minor because IT makers still favored older operating systems.
A significant challenge was providing enterprise support for the vital SAP products, and Fujitsu and SUSE collaborated to provide the necessary quality.
But the technical realities also needed to be supported. Fujitsu thus achieved numerous world records in SAP benchmarking for Linux throughout the years in addition to creating the first SAP SD benchmark on Linux.
Today, with 70% of all business-critical SAP applications running on Linux, the entire SAP strategy is transitioning to Linux. According to Jürgen Ellwanger, "Linux has advanced significantly every year in terms of resilience, mission-critical approach, scalability, and performance everywhere. And as a result, Linux has been the platform for all of SAP's development. There is nothing else now. That is a true success story.
The "Linux" or "GNU/Linux" operating system is a collaboration between these two projects; Linux is a kernel, not an operating system, and GNU is a collection of free software. Certain businesses and open source groups use the GNU/Linux core, make some changes, and then produce their versions or distributions.
- RHEL (Red hat)
- Malware Linux
Features of Linux OS
Why is Linux so unique?
When examining the key characteristics that give Linux its distinctive appearance and value, it becomes clear that the Linux operating system is renowned for its multi-user, multi-tasking, and multi-programming capabilities. It indicates that several users can simultaneously access the different system resources. Additionally, it enables the system to run numerous apps simultaneously.
System files and user files are organized according to a specified hierarchy in the Linux operating system's hierarchical file system. The Bash shell is used by Linux to carry out operating system commands. The most important aspect of Linux is its security; it offers user protection through password-based authentication and restricts access to particular files.
Linux has a fantastic graphical user interface and a firewall that may be a part of the kernel, making it immune to virus assault and compatible with most hardware. The Linux OS's portability is yet another key aspect. The installation of any type of hardware is supported by the Linux kernel and application software. Being a part of the open source community offers lots of room for cooperation.
Expansion of Unix:
In the 1980s, many businesses, including IBM, HP, and a dozen more, began developing their own Unix. It led to confusion among Unix dialects. Then, in 1983, Richard Stallman created the GNU project intending to create a freely usable Unix-like operating system. The popularity of his initiative, however, was a failure. There were numerous more Unix-like operating systems developed, but none of them managed to become well-known.
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Evolution of Linux in the Mobile Era:
Along with growing in popularity in the early 2000s, Linux is also starting to be the foundation for many mobile operating systems. The Nokia Maemo OS, which gained popularity in 2005, was based on the Debian operating system and modified a significant portion of the GNOME graphical user interface.
However, an occasion that occurred in 2003 had a considerably greater impact than the development of Maemo OS. Then in California, a business known as Android Inc. was founded. The operating system designed exclusively for digital cameras was the product around which the business initially planned the development of its strategy. This is how the Android operating system, which is being used today, was first looked at. The Linux kernel is now present in every single smartphone and tablet that supports Android.
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Why is Linux currently the best choice?
The excellence and allure of adopting Open Source projects have been demonstrated to the globe by this operating system. Because it is open-source, it enables the creation and enhancement of supporting technologies that defend the operating system from assaults and enhance it. The world's most secure operating system is given a special designation as a result!
Because Linux is free, starting a small business is simple. It is essential to get a licensed version of antivirus software for Windows. A further issue with the purchase is that, after buying a license for Windows Pro or another edition, you do not have Office installed. Following the installation of the operating system, Linux presents you with a vast selection of programs from which you can select.
It should be emphasized that every Linux distribution is freely accessible online. A few minutes are needed to set everything up. For instance, it only takes 10 to 25 minutes to reinstall a distribution on Linux servers, which is a significant advantage. Simply type the following command in the command line to update packages (we're talking about the two most popular ones here: Ubuntu and Debian):
sudo apt-get update
This makes working with the Operating System much easier!
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Selecting Linux Distributions:
A distribution is a grouping of programs (sometimes referred to as packages) that work well together to provide a complete environment. The packages include software programs (created by other projects) and may also include patches (updates) unique to the distribution, which improve the package's compatibility with other programs or the environment as a whole. These packages typically contain a great deal of logic to fit the software in the overall scheme of the distribution rather than being simple clones of the releases provided by the other software projects.
KDE is a good example. KDE is a desktop environment (graphical) that combines a large number of smaller programs. Some distributions provide their users a brand-new installation of KDE, while others make some minor changes to it so that it has a different default appearance and other things.
Another illustration would be the multimedia player MPlayer, which is renowned for its extensive support of multiple video formats. However, you must incorporate support for the (non-free) win32 codecs if you want to display Windows Media Video files (WMV). While some distributions support these codecs through MPlayer, some do not. You can decide whether or not you want this support using Gentoo Linux.
Private individuals and commercial entities maintain distributions. A CD that includes software specific to the distribution for initial system installation and setup can be used to install the distribution. Most widely used distributions provide users with sophisticated application management systems that let users quickly search for, find, and install new apps.
Many of the utilized packages and the operating system's core are still likely to be the same or very comparable. Additionally, the user can download and install extra packages on the operating system.
The numerous packages are developed by distinct teams of programmers using various computers, and each one is tested separately in various scenarios. Within the Linux community, there is a fair amount of agreement on the best practices for programming in terms of program compatibility.
There are many libraries available for program compilation, and some of these libraries offer features that are regarded as the "standard of the day." Even though some problems have been fixed, there is no assurance that all programs will integrate seamlessly. Therefore, before making a distribution public, some system testing should be done. From one distribution to the next, quite different amounts of testing are conducted.
Making a Distribution Decision - Different Linux distributions are best suited for various uses. What you plan to do with Linux and your particular tastes will determine which Linux distribution you should pick.
If you use a desktop computer, Ubuntu or Mint are probably the best options. Some individuals might choose Fedora, OpenSUSE, or Mageia (based on Mandriva Linux). Debian, CentOS (a free variant of Red Hat Enterprise Linux), or even Ubuntu LTS are good choices for those seeking a more reliable, tried-and-true system.
Although everyone has a favorite, there isn't one distribution that works best for everyone. Linux distributions give users a variety of options, which can be both helpful and messy. There are countless Linux distributions since anyone can create their own by putting together the source code themselves or by changing an existing version.
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Summing Up: Linux Today
Linux OS is now used by supercomputers, smartphones, desktop computers, web servers, tablets, laptops, vehicles, refrigerators, and other household appliances like washing machines, DVD players, routers, and modems.
You'll notice a huge increase in data processing speed after you move to Linux. Numerous professional instruments are supported at the same time. Linux will also make it possible to inspect processes, administer virtual environments, configure and access a computer very rapidly, as well as to do other common activities. Most likely, one of the Linux distributions is already installed on the server you are using right now. This allows you to use the applications and tools you are already familiar with.