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Scrum Framework: What it is and How does it work?

  • Bhumika Dutta
  • Jun 16, 2022
Scrum Framework: What it is and How does it work? title banner

Any firm must provide its finest goods to its customers to gain customer loyalty and increase its market reputation. Scrum is the most recent buzzword in the IT business.


It indicates that the teams concentrate on continual learning and adaptation throughout the project. They would rather provide a large job in small chunks than all at once.


The word has been taken from the sport of Rugby. A group of attacking players from each side gather together with their heads down and arms linked, push against each other, and try to seize control of the ball in the sport of rugby. That is exactly what scrum implies.


In this article, we are going to understand the Scrum framework, which allows you to get your work done easily.


What is Scrum?


Scrum is a collaborative framework for teams. Scrum encourages teams to learn via experiences, self-organize while working on a problem, and reflect on their victories and losses to continually improve.


Organizations began adopting the Scrum framework to produce products using diverse procedures and methodologies in the early 1990s, while Scrum was still in its infancy. It is a process framework that permits solving difficult challenges to provide products of the best potential value, not merely a process that gives several sequences that will help you generate a good quality product on time and within budget.


Together with Scrum Roles, Scrum Ceremonies, Scrum Artifacts, and Scrum Rules, Scrum teams make up the Scrum framework. The Scrum rules bind the ceremonies, roles, and artifacts together to control the interactions between them. In contrast, each component inside a Scrum framework has particular grounds and is a significant factor in Scrum's success.


Scrum is an agile development methodology.


What is agile methodology?


Agile techniques are product development approaches that adhere to the ideals and principles outlined in the Agile Manifesto for software development. Agile techniques attempt to produce the proper product through small cross-functional self-organizing teams that supply small pieces of functionality regularly, allowing for frequent customer input and course correction as needed.


Scrum is an agile development technique that uses iterative and incremental procedures to produce software. Scrum's main goal is to meet the needs of the customer by creating an atmosphere of open communication, shared accountability, and continuous improvement.


Also Read | An Overview of Agile Development Cycle


What are the features of Scrum?


The practical character of scrum is supported by the following principles:


  • Transparency:


The team must function in an environment where everyone is aware of the problems that other members of the team are experiencing. Teams bring to light concerns inside the company, typically long-standing challenges, that are impeding the team's progress.


  • Inspection:


The framework includes frequent inspection points that allow the team to reflect on how the process is performing. The Daily Scrum meeting and the Sprint Review Meeting are two of these inspection sites.


  • Adaptation:


The crew is always looking into how things are going and revising anything that doesn't appear to make sense.


People frequently confuse scrum and agile because scrum emphasizes continuous improvement, which is also a basic premise of agile. Agile is a mentality, whereas scrum is a structure for getting things done. Scrum is a heuristic framework that is focused on constant learning and adapting to changing circumstances.


It recognizes that at the outset of a project, the team does not know everything and that knowledge is gained by experience. Scrum is designed to let teams adapt organically to changing conditions and user requirements, with re-prioritization integrated into the process and short release cycles allowing your team to learn and grow continuously.


How does Scrum framework work?


The Scrum framework is heuristic in nature, which means it recognizes that a team does not know everything at the start of a project and that learning happens through time. It is built in such a way that teams are constantly revising their priorities in response to end-user requirements and adapting to changing situations.


The scrum framework consists of the following elements:


  • Scrum artifacts

  • Scrum roles

  • Scrum rules

  • Scrum events


Let us elaborate on each of these.


  • Scrum Artifacts:


Artifacts are things we make, such as a tool to address an issue or a value that increases transparency. The basic goal behind identifying an artifact is to ensure that everyone in a team is on the same page. The scrum team examines these three artifacts regularly to ensure that the process runs well and that everyone in the group understands how to approach the inspection and adaptation.

Image showing all three scrum artifacts.

The three scrum artifacts (source)

  1. Product Backlog:


The product backlog is a dynamic collection of features, needs, and enhancements. A customer's demand is collected to comprehend the client's desire. It's the team's "To Do" list, in a sense.


  1. Sprint Backlog: 


The Sprint Backlog is a collection of finished and selected user stories, work items, and bug fixes by the scrum team for implementation and execution in the current sprint cycle. As a result, a Sprint Backlog is a subset of requirements gathered in a Product Backlog and assigned an effort-hour estimate.


  1. Sprint Goal: 


The Sprint Goal is the usable end product that results from the sprint's completion. It's also known as an increase. It specifies the goal that must be achieved, as determined by the development team. It's the result of a conversation between the Product Owner (PO) and the Scrum Team.


  • Scrum Roles:


Three Scrum Roles make up the Scrum Framework:


  1. Product Developer:


The Product Owner (PO) is primarily concerned with maximizing the product's value and cooperation. PO's choices are respected throughout the organization. The Product Backlog is managed exclusively by the PO. 


This comprises:


  • Mentioning Product Backlog items.

  • To meet project objectives, prioritize the Product Backlog items.

  • Increasing the value of teamwork.

  • Ensure that the Product Backlog is visible to everyone.

  • Assuring that the Product Backlog items are understood by the team.


  1. Scrum Master:


The Scrum Master is the Scrum team's Servant Leader. He or she leads the team, and the Product Owner ensures that all Agile processes are followed correctly by the team members. The Scrum Master is responsible for not only resolving all issues that arise throughout the Agile development process, but also assisting the business, product owner, team, and individuals in meeting their goals.


  1. Development team:


In Scrum, the development team is cross-functional, consisting of individuals who can define, construct, and test the product. The development team should consist of 5-9 persons and should possess all of the necessary abilities to generate high-quality software. During product development, the Development team is a self-organized group that selects the best strategy to reach a solution.


  • Scrum Rules:


A collection of Scrum principles for agile software development lifecycles that must be observed inside a Scrum framework:


Sprint-related restrictions include:


  • Sprints should be long enough to produce significant chunks of work while still short enough to make planning easier.

  • Every Sprint contains Sprint Planning, which must be limited to two hours or one week of Sprint duration.

  • Every Sprint has the same duration.

  • Every Sprint should last no more than four weeks.

  • At the end of each Sprint, a 'potentially shippable product' must be a result.


Product Backlog Item (PBI) related rules: 


  • All PBIs specified in the Product should be connected to the same product.

  • There can't be two PBIs with the same Product Backlog position.

  • User stories are used to communicate PBIs.


Scrum regulations for team members' roles include: 


  • As a team member, you should attend all Scrum Events.

  • He or she should work cooperatively as a team member to follow the 'Definition of Done.'


Scrum guidelines for the Scrum Master (SM) role include:


  • As a Scrum Master, he or she has power over how the Scrum method should be implemented.

  • The timeboxes within a team must be adhered to by the Scrum Master.

  • As a Scrum Master, he or she helps the team overcome barriers and achieve the 'Definition of Done.'


Scrum guidelines for the Product Owner (PO) position include:


  • The product backlog can be prioritized by the PO.

  • PO always lets team members select several PBIs to complete in a single Sprint.


Scrum Events:


The following is a list of all the important ceremonies that a scrum team could attend:


  1. Organize the backlog: 


The product owner is in charge of this event, which is also known as backlog grooming. The product owner's primary responsibilities include driving the product toward its goal and maintaining a continual pulse on the market and customers. 


As a result, he/she keeps this list up to date by leveraging feedback from users and the development team to assist, prioritize and keep it clean and available to work on at any moment. More information about keeping a healthy backlog may be found here.


  1. Sprint Planning:


The whole development team plans the work to be done (scope) for the current sprint at this meeting. The scrum master leads this meeting, which is when the team decides on the sprint goal. 


From the product backlog, specific use stories are then added to the sprint. These stories are always aligned with the goal, and the scrum team has decided that they are possible to implement during the sprint. Every scrum member should know what can be provided in the sprint and how the increment may be delivered after the planning meeting.


  1. Sprint:


A sprint is a period during which the scrum team collaborates to complete an increment. A sprint is typically two weeks long, while some teams find that a week is simpler to scope or a month is easier to deliver a useful increment. 


According to Dave West of Scrum.org, the sprint should be shorter the more complicated the job is and the more unknowns there are. However, it is ultimately up to your team, and you should not be scared to make changes if something isn't working. If required, the scope of work might be renegotiated between the product owner and the development team during this time. This is when scrum's empirical aspect comes into play.


During the sprint, everything happens, from planning to retrospectives. Once a sprint's time interval has been determined, it must be maintained throughout the development process. This allows the team to learn from previous sprints and apply what they've learned to future sprints.


  1. Stand up:


To keep things simple, this is a daily super-short meeting that takes place at the same time. Many teams aim to finish the meeting in 15 minutes, however, this is only a guideline. This meeting is sometimes known as a 'daily stand-up,' implying that it should be brief. The daily scrum's purpose is to get everyone in the team on the same page, aligned with the sprint goal, and create a strategy for the next 24 hours.


  1. Sprint review:


The team gathers for an informal session after the sprint to see a demo of, or examine, the increment. The development team presents the 'Done' backlog items to stakeholders and colleagues for feedback. Although the product owner has the option of whether or not to release the increment, it is usually done. The product owner reworks the product backlog based on the current sprint at this review meeting, which might feed into the following sprint planning session. Consider keeping your sprint review to a maximum of four hours for a one-month Sprint.


  1. Sprint retrospective:


The retrospective is a meeting in which the team gathers to document and debate what worked and what didn't in a sprint, a project, people or relationships, tools, or even specific ceremonies. The goal is to create a space where the team can concentrate on what went well and what may be improved for the next time, rather than on what went wrong.


Also Read | A Complete Guide on FinTech App Development




The scrum structure is straightforward. The game's rules, objects, events, and roles are all simple to comprehend. Its semi-prescriptive approach aids in the removal of ambiguity in the development process while allowing enterprises to add their unique flavor. This blog served as an introduction to the Scrum framework.


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