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Types & Examples of Revenue in Economics

  • Hrithik Saini
  • Apr 05, 2022
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A company's revenue is the money it makes by selling products and services to customers, which is what it does every day. It's also known as sales or movement. Revenue can also come from royalty, fees, or investments.


A company is committed to ensuring it can produce as many numbers of its commodity as it requires by establishing a cost price that is less than or equal to the marketplace cost price. In such a case, the motivation for decreasing a product's cost price is removed. 


As a consequence, the company should set a cost price that is as close to the market cost of production as practicable.


If you want to work in accounting or finance, you need to be familiar with the phrase "revenue." Understanding revenue may assist you in determining the financial health of your firm. Understanding the different sources of income may also help people to make proactive economic decisions for your organization. 


In this post, we'll look at what revenue is, why it's important, what forms of income there are, and how to recognise it using five distinct approaches.


Also Read | Revenue and Turnover: Difference



Revenue & Its Importance


Revenue is the profit a company makes through the sale of goods or services to customers. It's usually seen as a leading sign of a company’s financial position. The following items may be included in a company's revenue:


  • Product or service sales


  • Interests



  • Rental revenue


Assessing your company's income might assist you in determining how well it is operating in comparison to past years. Revenue can also help your business figure out which items or services your clients like. This can help the firm enhance its product development cycle, perhaps increasing revenue.



Why is it Important to Comprehend Revenue?

If you work in the private sector or administration, knowing how to calculate revenue will help you complete responsibilities at work more correctly. Some experts look at revenue data to come up with marketing strategies, set short term and long financial objectives and generate a project budget. 


They may also use the information to prepare accounting information. If you're an accountant, for example, you may put your company's value with the first row of a comprehensive income for a certain period. Knowing your sales revenue may also help you forecast its growth opportunities, which may have an impact on your career objectives.



Revenue Vs Profit


Both revenue and profit are excellent measures of a company's financial health. Because you'll be using both, it's critical to know the distinctions so you can effectively analyze your company's finances.


The expenditures are the essential distinction in comprehending both of these concepts. When looking at overall revenue and profit, the major distinction is that revenue is money before costs, whereas profit is earnings after expenses. 


Your company won't be able to make a profit until it generates enough income. Considering revenue and profit, there are three fundamental distinctions:


  1. What each number means: revenue is the amount of money a firm makes in a particular fiscal year by providing services or selling items. Profit, on the other hand, is the proportion realized by a corporation after deducting its expenditures for delivering a service or items from its overall income.


  1. Where does each item appear on a comprehensive income? Revenue is usually the first section of a comprehensive income. Profit, on the other hand, is normally found at the bottom of a comprehensive income.


  1. Some firms use the word 'net income' instead of 'profit' to describe each term. Some businesses use the term sales to refer to revenue.


Also Read | Revenue Deficit


Types of Revenue in Economics


Below are the two main types of revenue in economics.


  1. Operating Revenue


The money a corporation makes from its main business activities is referred to as operating profits. It is usually a company's primary source of revenue. A hospital, for example, may generate operational revenue by getting medical services, but a retail store would generate revenue by selling items. 


A company's operational revenue may comprise a variety of components, guess it depends on the business and sector. Some examples of operational revenue are as follows:


  • Sales Revenue: When items are exchanged for money, this is referred to as a sale. Clothing sales, for example, might be recorded as revenue by the fashion industry.


  • Service Revenue: When a corporation or consultant delivers the services of a professional to a customer, it generates service income. A marketing business, for example, may keep track of the money it generates by delivering promotion services to the customer.


  1. Nonoperating Revenue


Nonoperating revenue is the money a firm makes by doing business that isn't related to its primary business. Non-operating revenue can take the form of the accompanying:


  • Rent revenue: Rent revenue is the money a firm makes by letting other parties rent its premises or types of equipment.


  • Interest revenue: Interest revenue is the profit generated by given profitability. Trade receivables interest can also be included in investing and financing activities.


Also Read | AI Strategies to Maximize Business Revenue



Examples of Revenue in Economics

Gross Revenue, Net revenue, deferred revenue and Accrued revenue are some examples of revenue in economics.

Examples of Revenue in Economics

  1. Gross Revenue




Gross Revenue = Price of Goods or Services × Number of Units Sold or Number of Customers


Gross revenue, often abbreviated as gross income, is the total amount of money created by a company, excluding any revenue that has already been or may be used for costs. 


As a result, gross income comprises not only money earned through the sale of products and services, but also revenue generated from interest, stock sales, currency fluctuations, and equipment and technology sales.


Gross revenue is sometimes considered as a high line because that appears at the top of a statement of statutory location, is also one of the following statements needed for yearly financial statements in the United States, together with the balance sheet and cash flow statement. 


The income statement summarizes the financial performance of a company over given accounting periods, such as quarter earnings or year.


  1. Net Revenue




Net Revenue = Gross Revenue - [ - Discounts + Commissions - Returns ]


After any customer discounts or reimbursements are accounted in, net revenue is the money a firm makes in a particular time. Many firms, particularly in the retail and commercial industries, employ purchase discounts to entice clients to acquire their products or services.


They also employ purchase concessions to encourage purchasers (who buy on credit) to pay off their accounts sooner—for example, if they pay a bill in 10 days instead of 30, they get a 2% discount.


When a corporation gives a client a discount or an allowance, it shows up on the comprehensive income as a decrease in sales. This signifies that the net revenue amount for the selected time is the "real" revenue.


  1. Deferred Revenue


Advance payments for goods or services that will be provided or performed in the future are referred to as deferred revenue, also recognized as unearned revenue. The payment schedule is recorded as deferred revenue, a debt, somewhat on the accounting records of the firm that collects it.


Deferred revenue is a burden since it symbolizes unearned money and items or services owing to a client. On the comprehensive income, the commodity is recognised correspondingly as revenue as it is supplied over time.


Calculating deferred revenue is quite straightforward. It's the total of all deposits, retainers, as well as other payment schedules made by customers. 


Any further withdrawals and payable accounts raise the deferred revenue amounts, while income collected during the financial statement decreases them.


  1. Accrued Revenue


According to GAAP, accrued revenue management acknowledges revenue or income in the accounting software period and registers cash and cash equivalents in the accounting information.


For goods products and distribution, accrued revenue captures revenue and marketable securities before the client is invoiced and the money is received in cash.


It refers to company dividend earnings and is a type of accumulated revenue. The cash source of finance does not represent cash flow, but accrued increasing disposable income does.


When accumulated revenue is recognized, it is highlighted in this section on the comprehensive income, and a related accumulated revenue account on the balance sheet, normally under accounting records, is discharged by the same amount.


Accrual accounting for revenues isn't required in financial transactions for earning revenues if the transaction is documented at the moment of the sale or service. 



Significance of Revenue Curves


  1. Estimation of Profits & Losses


A producer's goal is to make the most money possible. When he discovers AR > AC, he will make the most money.


Profits will be maximised if the difference between AR and AC is as large as possible. A producer determines if he is producing abnormal profits, average profits, or losses.


  1. Equilibrium


The second reason AR and MR curvatures are important is to determine how much a manufacturer should output. The idea of MR is critical in this scenario. At the moment where MR Equals MC, the company will be in equilibrium. This is the firm's overall appearance even under market conditions. Output, price, profit, and loss are all determined by MR = MC.


  1. Capital Utilization


We can tell if a company is operating at full capacity by looking at its revenue curves. In other words, if the AR curve is tangential to the AC curve at its minimum efficient scale, the company will be operating at maximum capacity. 


It is only conceivable under competitive equilibrium, not lack sufficient competition such as monopoly, monopolistic competition, or monopolistic competition.


  1. Price Changes


The ideas of AR and MR are also important in establishing the pricing of factor services. They become reversed U-shaped in commodity pricing such as rent, salaries, interest, and profits. 


The AR and MR curves are renamed ARP (Average Revenue Productivity) and MRP (Marginal Revenue Productivity), respectively. It's a useful tool for describing the firm's equilibrium under various market situations.


Also Read | Amortization and Depreciation


Five Revenue Recognition Methodologies

Five Revenue Recognition Methodologies:1) Cost Recovery Method2) Instalment Method3) Sales-Basis Methods4) Completed Contract Method5) Percentage of Completion Method

Five Revenue Recognition Methodologies

Revenue recognition is an important financial standard that explains the parameters under which a corporation recognises various forms of revenue and chooses how to represent it in accounting information. 


The approach your firm employs is determined by the industry during which your business and the conditions of your organization. The following are the five revenue recognition methods:


  1. Cost Recovery Method


After a consumer pays for the products or services supplied, a firm recognises a profit associated with a sale using the cost recovery technique. This method may be used by your firm to determine the entire costs of completing a project connected to the product or service sold, such as research and development. 


The corporation may then utilize this data to create appropriate budgets for future initiatives of a similar nature.


  1. Installment Method


The installment methodology of revenue recognition may be used if your organization allows clients to ultimately contribute over several years. This strategy is frequently used by businesses that sell high-priced items or services. 


This strategy may also be used to broaden a company's audience by offering clients a premium way to acquire a product.


  1. Sales-Basis Methods


If a company's consumers make a commitment and it provides the goods or services they ordered, it can employ the sales-basis technique


When a company uses the sales-basis technique, the consumer often receives ownership of the goods at the time of purchase. The sales-basis technique of revenue recognition is frequently used in the retail business.


  1. Completed Contract Method


When a firm utilizes the completed contract technique, the income produced from a task is generally recognised after the project has been completed. If your organization employs this strategy, it may draft a contract and ask a customer to agree to certain parameters to decide when the project is finished. 


The completed contract approach is commonly used in the pharmaceutical sector and other businesses that deal with development contracts.

  1. Percentage of Completion Method


When a development lasts numerous years, companies adopt the percentage of accomplishment technique. Companies that construct aeroplanes, ships, or skyscrapers may take over than a year just to complete the project. 


Before conducting the assignment, a corporation can demonstrate to its shareholders that it is earning income and profits throughout this period. 


Your organisation can record profits and losses connected to a project in each financial year that the development is active by utilising the percentage of finalisation approach.


Also Read | Opportunity Cost


A company's revenue is the money it makes by selling products and services to customers, because that is what it does every day. It's also known as sales or turnover. Revenue can also come from royalties, fees, or investments. 


Understanding the different sources of income may also assist you in making proactive business decisions for your organization.

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