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What is Economics? Keynesian And Behavioural Economics

  • Riya Kumari
  • Nov 14, 2020
  • Updated on: Jan 25, 2021
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‘Economics’ is a simple word with diverse meanings. Some people think of economics as two different perspectives. The first one talks about economics as a subject. In this view, it can only be considered as a collection of theories and formulas.


The other view of economics is as a concept. However, in the present time, economics is much more than any of the above-given views. 


Economics can be defined as the process and technique of organizing raw data. This helps us to formulate the ideas and make the proper use of data. This data helps to solve huge problems. Many of them include world poverty, hunger, jobs etc.


The data gathered together and presented in a very simple and understandable form can be easily utilized to solve worldwide major problems


So, moving the discussion a step forward, let’s discuss in detail about economics.


Definition of Economics


Economics is a sociology that is concerned about the creation, dispersion, and consumption of goods and services. It concentrates on how people, organizations, governments, and countries settle on decisions about how to allot assets.


There are different types of economic systems like capitalism, socialism, and communism.

  • Capitalism- Capitalism is an economic system in which private actors own and control property in accord with their interests, and demand and supply freely set prices in markets in a way that can serve the good interests of society.
  • Socialism- Socialism is a populist economic and political system based on public ownership which is also called collective or common ownership of the means of production.
  • Communism- Simply we can define communism as an economic ideology that supports for a classless society in which all property and wealth are communally-owned, instead of by individuals.


  (Recommended blog: Capital in economics)


Economics centres around the activities of people, based on presumptions that people act with rational behaviour, looking for the most ideal degree of advantage or utility. The structure squares of economics are the investigations of work and exchange. 


Basically, economics concentrates on the nature and interactions of economic agencies and how economies function.


Since there are numerous potential uses of human work and various approaches to gain assets, it is the errand of economics to figure out which strategies yield the best outcomes. 


Related blog: Difference between economic growth and economic development


Economics concerns problems that influence monetary crises and analyze the ratio of capital amongst companies and people. It consolidates various branches of knowledge, for example, governmental issues, humanism, law, and geography.


Areas of the Economics You Could Examine or Specialize in


  • Business economics - the use of monetary hypothesis and procedure to businesses and organizations.

  • Development economics- concentrates on the improvement cycle in low-pay nations.

  • Macroeconomics- covers huge scope economics factors.

  • Natural economics- concerns the monetary effect of ecological strategies.


Nowadays, there are great job opportunities if you study the subject economics. A degree in economics covers current genuine issues.


While the course has an emphasis on mathematics and its application to economics, it additionally incorporates a hypothetical angle to create a comprehension of monetary models inside various social orders.


You will figure out how associations and people settle on global choices and how to estimate likely changes in the realm of economics. 


Several opportunities which you will get after completing your studies in economics are Professional Economist, Financial Risk Analyst, Data Analyst (Banking Sector), Economic Researcher, Business Economist, Agricultural Economist, Investment Analyst, Actuary, and many more.

This image is indicating the importance of economics.

Importance of Economics

What are the Types of Economics?


Economics can commonly be separated into two types that are microeconomics which centres around unique individuals and organizations and macroeconomics which focuses on the conduct of the economy in general. Here, we will discuss these two in detail.


  1. Microeconomics


Microeconomics concentrates on how singular customers and firms decide. These individual dynamic units can be a solitary individual, a family, a business, or a government organization.


Breaking down specific parts of human conduct, microeconomics attempts to disclose how they react to changes in cost and why they request what they do at specific value levels. 


  • Microeconomics' points range from the dynamic of supply and demand to the efficiency and expenses related to creating goods and services; they likewise incorporate how work is separated and assigned; how business firms are coordinated and capacity; and how individuals approach uncertainties, and risk.


  • Microeconomics attempts to clarify how and why various goods are esteemed in an unexpected way, how people settle on monetary choices, and how people best exchange, arrange and help out each other.



  1. Macroeconomics


Macroeconomics examines a general economy on both a national and worldwide level. Its centre can incorporate a distinct geological locale, a nation, a landmass, or even the entire world. 


  • Its essential zones of study are repetitive monetary cycles and expansive financial development and improvement.


  • Points considered incorporating foreign exchange, government financial and money related approach, unemployment rates, the development of entire creation yield as reflected by changes in the Gross Domestic Product or GDP, and business cycles that bring about extensions, blasts, and depressions.


Microeconomics and macroeconomics are interwoven. Total macroeconomic marvels are clearly and in a real sense simply the aggregate of microeconomic wonders.


Anyway, these two parts of economics use different speculations, models, and exploration techniques, which sometimes seem to clash with one another.


What is Keynesian Economics?


Have you ever heard of the term 'Keynesian Economics'? If not, then read further, we have collected all important details about Keynesian economics.


This word refers to John Maynard Keynes’ theory that economic intervention by administrations impacts optimal economic performance and assists to avoid or moderate economic recessions. 


In the 1930s, the British economist John Maynard Keynes proposed this theory.


Keynes formulated his theories in answer to the Great Depression, and was highly significant of prior economic theories, which he implied to be “classical economics”.


In simple language, we can say that Keynesian economics is a theory that explains the government should improve demand to strengthen development.


Keynesian economics is a macroeconomic theory of complete spending in the economy and its impacts on yield, business, and inflation. Keynesian economics is viewed as a "demand-side" theory that concentrates on changes in the economy short term.


Keynes' theory was the first to smartly isolate the investigation of economic behaviour and markets dependent on individual motivations from the investigation of broad national economic aggregate variables and constructs.


Based on this theory, Keynes advocates for expanded government expenditure and lower taxes to animate demand and haul the worldwide economy out of the depression.


Consequently, the Keynesian economy was used to allude to the idea that optimal monetary presentation could be accomplished and economic recessions prevented by impacting aggregate demand through extremist adjustment and economic intervention strategies by the government.


Keynesian economists suggested activist fiscal and monetary policy as the fundamental tools to manage the economy and battle unemployment.


“The political problem of mankind is to combine three things: economic efficiency, social justice, and individual liberty” -John Maynard Keynes


Now, let's catch a glimpse of three prominent canons in the Keynesian explanation of how the economy works-


  1. Aggregate demand is impacted by several financial decisions, public and private.

  2. Changes in aggregate demand, whether expected or unexpected, have their tremendous short-run impact on actual output and employment, not on prices.

  3. Prices, and particularly wages, react gradually to changes in supply and demand.


Related blog: Elasticity of demand and its types

What is Behavioral Economics?


Now, let's drive towards behavioural economics. Do you know anything about this economics? If not, then there is no issue, here you will learn everything about behavioural economics.


Behavioural economics is the investigation of psychology because it identifies with the economic decision-making cycles of people and foundations. 


You may not be aware of it, but there are two significant questions asked in this field, are economists' assumptions of utility or profit maximization good approximations of real people's behaviour? and do individuals maximize subjective expected utility?


Behavioural economics is always connected to normative economics. Behavioural economics clarifies that people are not sane and are unequipped for using sound judgment.


It draws on psychology and economics to investigate why individuals now and then settle on silly choices, and why and how their conduct doesn't follow the expectations of economics models. 


Choices, for example, the amount to pay for some cup of tea, regardless of whether to go to graduate school, whether to pursue a healthy lifestyle, the amount to contribute towards retirement, and so forth are such choices that a great many people make eventually in their lives. Behavioural economics looks to clarify why an individual chose to go for decision A, rather than decision B.


Behavioural economics is an analysis that divides the teachings of psychology and economics.


Other than giving further knowledge into what propels human conduct, understanding behavioural economics can assist individuals with practising more prominent self-control and create healthy habits.


Regularly, considering their future self and long haul objectives can assist individuals with settling on better choices and not yield to destructive motivations and addictions.


Rather than settling on ideal decisions, individuals frequently act in manners that appear to be unreasonable and even against their inclinations. Behavioural economics clarifies why people may settle on irrational decisions by showing how their dynamic is impacted by, heightened emotions, mental fatigue, choice overload, perceived social norms, biases like future discounting, and situational framing.


Also, numerous choices must be made under states of incredible uncertainty, where very little is thought about pretty much all the dangers and advantages of a decision or where those highlights are continually moving.


Behavioural economics plans to comprehend the impacts of uncertainty on decision making in such domains as purchaser buying, money related reserve funds, and way of life changes.


Wrapping up


  • Economics is a wide area that gives a variety of advantages. Hope so, this blog makes you clear about the whole concept of economics.


  • Economics is one of the favourite subjects of several students as a degree in economics is very honoured by employers. Also, you will earn a powerful understanding of how the nation works. You can pursue your career as a data analyst, chartered accountant, market research analyst, economic consultant, and many more.


          Also read: What is the Economic Calendar?


  • While studying economics you will develop a unique way of thinking that you can relate to everyday situations and you will improve a meadow of abilities like research skills, computing, problem-solving, teamwork, time management, and critical thinking.


  • Economics is a crucial portion of the realm around us as it influences everything from how much we spend on goods and services to how much workers get paid.


  • So, learning economics provides you with a fresh impression of the nation and how it works when it comes to corporations and economics.

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