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What is an Income Fund? Working, Types, and Benefits

  • Bhumika Dutta
  • Mar 21, 2022
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Income funds are popular among conservative investors who don't want to take on the risk of equity investment. Investors can choose from a variety of income funds available on the market. This is an introductory blog to income funds, in which we'll learn about the meaning, characteristics, and advantages of this form of the mutual fund.


Let us start by learning the meaning of income funds.


What is an Income Fund?


An income fund, like a mutual fund or an exchange-traded fund (ETF), is an investment instrument that prioritizes current income over capital gain or appreciation. The word "current income" refers to revenue that is received regularly rather than waiting for a financial payoff at a later period.


Income funds are popular among those who want to develop a second source of income after they retire because of their low risk and fixed nature. They are often thought to be a low-risk alternative since they generate revenue through interest payments on cash deposits. These funds are a good alternative to traditional savings accounts since they give better rates and are more liquid funds.


Fixed income funds invest in bonds, that is why these are also known as Bond Funds


Bonds are a loan between an investor and a bond issuer, such as a government or company. These bonds pay interest regularly in the form of 'coupons,' which are paid by the borrower in exchange for the loan.  


The issuer of corporate bonds also runs the risk of not being able to make principal or interest payments. As a result, they are more likely to pay higher interest rates to compensate for the increased risk. Investment-grade bond funds and below-investment-grade, or junk, bond funds are two types of corporate bond funds.


Then there are equity income funds, which seek to generate income by investing in higher dividend-paying equities and receiving monthly dividends. These funds' income tends to be greater in the long run than cash and fixed income funds. However, this entails a higher level of danger.


How do Income Mutual Funds work?


An income fund's manager strives to produce strong returns independent of the interest rate regime. This means that income funds strive to provide returns regardless of whether interest rates rise or fall. This is accomplished by the active management of the investment portfolio.


The fund managers adopt one of two major strategies. The first is interest income, which is earned when a fund maintains debt instruments until they mature. Another option is to profit by selling debt securities in the market if their value rises.


These funds choose debt securities that are more secure and have a reduced interest rate risk. When we look at the historical performance of income funds, we can see that they consistently beat typical bank deposits while also providing greater flexibility and liquidity.


Types of Income Funds:


When it comes to income funds' divergence, the most important factor of distinction is what the fund is investing in. The following are the types of income funds:


  1. Bond Funds:


Bond funds, as previously mentioned, are a type of income fund that invests in corporate and government bonds. Government bonds appeal to investors because they carry almost no risk and serve as a safe harbor for those seeking a secure investment. When compared to corporate bonds, such bonds have lower dividend yields due to risk reduction.


  1. Equity Funds:


An equity-income fund is a form of income fund that invests in firms' dividend-paying equities. It's for investors who want to know how much money they'll get each month from their dividend-paying portfolio.


  1. Money Market Funds:


A money market fund invests in commercial papers, short-term Treasury bills, and certificates of deposit (CDs), among other things. Even though they are not covered by federal deposit insurance like other bank products, money market funds provide investors a relatively safe choice in the form of lower interest rates.


  1. Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs):


A real estate investment trust (REIT) is a legal corporation that holds real estate assets including homes, commercial office buildings, retail stores, and hotels. The fundamental benefit of a REIT income fund is that it allows you to reap the benefits of real estate ownership without having to own and manage the property.


Things to consider before investing in Income Fund:


Here are a few factors that one must consider, before investing in any income fund:


  1. The risk involved:


Interest rate and credit risk are major concerns for income funds. A sustained rise in interest rates might lead to a drop in underlying bond prices, which would then lead to a drop in the fund's value. Furthermore, there is always the possibility that a bond issuer would fail to make a promised payment, which might have an impact on the fund's results.


Within the asset type of equities, income funds are generally secure investments. However, some types of income funds, such as equity income funds, can contain some risk and should be properly researched before making a selection.


These funds invest in dividend-paying assets to provide monthly income to its owners. Company stocks and government securities are examples of these securities. Certificates of deposit, corporate bonds, money market products, and debentures are some examples.


  1. The returns of this fund:


These funds use active portfolio management to generate returns in both falling and rising interest rate environments. By taking advantage of interest rate volatility, income funds can be a terrific strategy to increase overall profits. In the case of declining interest rates, income funds can provide considerably greater returns in the region of 7% to 9%.


They have historically been proven to provide superior returns than bank fixed deposits. These funds are more flexible than a Bank Fixed Deposit, which has a lock-in term. These funds also include a wide range of redemption and withdrawal options. Instead of depositing the money in traditional bank Fixed Deposits (FDs), income funds may be a better option. Income funds, on the other hand, carry far higher risks than FDs.


  1. The tax on capital gains:


Taxable capital gains can be earned by investing in income funds. The holding period, or how long you stay invested in an income fund, determines your tax rate. Short-term capital gain is defined as a gain realized over less than three years (STCG).


Long-term capital gains (LTCG) are defined as gains generated over three years or more. Income funds' STCG is also added to the investor's income and taxed according to his tax bracket. 


  1. The Investment Horizon in Income funds:


Investors with a 1-3 year investment horizon might consider income funds as a place to put their short-term surplus assets. To make the most out of this money, one must appropriately schedule their entry and leave. The best time to invest is when interest rates are low and exit when they start to rise. If an investor intends to retain his or her money in long-term FDs, income funds would be a preferable option.


  1. Financial goals of income funds:


Income funds invest in high-yielding securities that can be used to augment current income. In addition to their normal pension, retirees can invest in income funds to supplement their income. If you have a short-term aim of paying off your EMI or saving for further education, these funds can assist you in achieving your objectives. These funds are versatile because they offer SIP, STP, and SWP options.


Benefits of Income Fund:


Apart from the possibility for risk aversion, income funds offer a slew of advantages to investors, including:


  1. Diversification: 


When someone invests in income funds, they get a variety of different asset classes to choose from, allowing them to diversify their portfolio significantly.


  1. Expense Ratios: 


Most income funds have low expense ratios, which allows investors to boost their net investment earnings.


  1. Simple Investing: 


Income funds are simple to handle since people can quickly calculate their monthly budget and get consistent payouts.




Investors are still finding it difficult to pick an income fund in today's market. This decision will be made easier if you consider the amount of money you wish to earn, your risk tolerance, and how long you expect to stay involved.


We've covered all there is to know about income funds in this article, including the definition, kinds, benefits, and items to think about before investing in them.

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