Humanity has constantly tried to explore the world of technology. With time, again we have come across some amazing and also some disastrous inventions. But, one creation of humanity that can be called the most astonishing one is Artificial Intelligence or AI.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a method of programming a computer, robot, or other devices to think like a clever human. AI is the study of how the human brain thinks, learns, makes decisions, and works to solve problems. Finally, this research generates intelligent software systems. The goal of artificial intelligence is to enhance computer functions that are similar to human understanding, such as thinking, learning, and problem-solving.
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AI has now expanded to almost every possible sector that exists. From business to education to the phones that we have in our hands everything is using the best practices of AI. But like these sectors, AI has different types.
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In this blog, we are going to talk about the different types of AI.
Types of AI
The degree to which an AI system can replicate human capabilities is used as a criterion for determining the types of AI. Since AI research aims to make machines mimic human-like functioning, the degree to which an AI system can replicate human capabilities is used as a criterion for determining the types of AI.
Thus, AI may be categorized into one of several kinds based on how a machine compares to humans in terms of adaptability and performance.
An AI that can do more human-like functions with comparable levels of skill will be regarded as a more developed type of AI in this system, whereas an AI with restricted functionality and performance will be considered a simpler and less evolved variety.
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There are two general classifications for AI based on this criterion. One approach is to categorize AI and AI-enabled robots based on their resemblance to human minds and their capacity to "think" and "feel" like humans.
If we go with the functionality, then based on functionality AI is classified into four different types. They are:
Types of AI
Reactive machines are one of the forms of AI that helped kickstart the AI revolution in its early stages. These are the first kind of AI systems, with minimal technological capabilities. Surprisingly, these devices don't require a memory base to operate. Nonetheless, they mimic the human mind's ability to respond to many sorts of simulations.
Memory-based functions are not executed by these computers. They are unable to apply their prior experience to the present responsibilities that have been allocated to them. In brief, these are the sorts of Artificial Intelligence systems that lack the ability to ‘learn' new information and apply it to future actions.
The most common use of these sorts of Artificial Intelligence systems is to reply quickly to a set of standard inputs. These AI systems, on the other hand, are unable to ‘store' their experiences and use the results to predict future reactions. IBM's Deep Blue, which defeated chess Grandmaster Garry Kasparov in 1997, is a notable example of a reactive AI computer.
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One of the first forms of AI that could ‘learn' from its experiences was a limited memory AI system.
Memory problems Artificial intelligence systems combine the ability to react to and learn from past data. The ‘learning' process now leads to technical competence and the ability to make informed judgments. AI systems today, particularly those that use Deep Learning, have been ‘trained to respond and learn.
There is a lot of training data for AI systems with limited memory. This collection of databases aids AI systems in analyzing what's going on in real-time. Again, AI systems with limited memory may ‘learn' from prior experiences and use what they've learned to make better judgments in the future.
This is where the majority of today's AI systems fall. The ‘fingerprint scanning machine' is one of the most important instances of limited memory AI systems.
This device is used by a lot of businesses. It restricts access to just those who are authorized to be on their premises. Based on the recorded data, the computer analyses the properties of a fingerprint and reacts quickly. If the fingerprint matches one of the previously stored images, the gadget unlocks the door and lets the individual in.
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Theory of Mind
While the first two forms of AI have been and continue to be abundant, the next two types of AI exist only as an idea or a work in progress for the time being. The next level of AI systems that researchers are actively working on is the theory of mind AI.
A theory of mind-level AI will be able to identify the needs, emotions, beliefs, and cognitive processes of the creatures with whom it interacts. While artificial emotional intelligence is currently a burgeoning business and a focus for major AI researchers, reaching the level of Theory of Mind AI would need advancements in other AI disciplines as well.
Because AI robots must perceive people as persons with minds that may be shaped by several factors in order to fully comprehend human needs, they must “understand” humans.
Self-aware systems are one of the less well-known kinds of AI that is still only a theoretical concept. The ultimate objective is to achieve this phase when we focus on what AI is and its function in our lives. The goal of researching and developing this technology is to get to this self-aware stage.
Self-aware AI systems would be so advanced and advanced in comparison to the human brain that they would have sufficient self-awareness and self-consciousness. However, it is still unknown how long these AI systems will take to evolve. It's possible that bringing self-aware AI systems to life may take decades, if not centuries.
The next three types of AI are the ones based on technology. Based on technology these are the types of AI:
Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)
This form of artificial intelligence encompasses all currently available AI, including the most complex and powerful AI yet devised. Artificial narrow intelligence refers to AI systems that can only execute a single job independently while emulating human skills.
These machines have a very limited or narrow range of competencies since they can only perform what they are designed to do. These systems relate to all reactive and limited memory AI, according to the aforementioned categorization approach. ANI encompasses even the most advanced AI that employs machine learning and deep learning to train itself.
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Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)
In terms of functionality, Artificial General Intelligence is linked to the Theory of Mind. This sort of AI is still in the works. Researchers are looking for practical ways to incorporate human emotions and other skills into machines so that they can behave like humans.
The goal is to construct computers that can make connections across several domains on their own.
This comes very close to simulating how the human brain works. As a result, Artificial General Intelligence is continually growing, and the end result might be genuinely transformative for humans.
Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)
The future creation of ASI systems would be a pinnacle achievement in AI research. To execute jobs and make choices better than humans, AI systems would require massive quantities of memory.
Machines with a large quantity of memory, fast processing capabilities, and a faster rate of intelligent decision-making would be able to accomplish difficult jobs with ease and in less time. They will be able to make complex judgments impacted by a variety of circumstances in ways they have never been able to before.
The study is continuing, and the researchers are making progress one step at a time. This notion is still in its infancy and is largely speculative.
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Regardless of how you break AI down, realize that it is a powerful software tool for the future that is here to stay. AI is automating monotonous activities in the workplace, allowing individuals to attain higher levels of self-awareness and creativity by embracing continual states of change and inventiveness.
Artificial intelligence even has the potential to make our cities less congested, less polluted, and more livable in every way. Again, AI's impact on the world has the potential to be far greater and better than the introduction of electricity.
So, I leave you with this quote by Ray Kurzweil, an American futurist,
“Artificial intelligence will reach human levels by around 2029. Follow that out further to, say, 2045, and we will have multiplied the intelligence – the human biological machine intelligence of our civilization – a billion-fold.”