What does Googles’ Quantum Supremacy describes?

  • Neelam Tyagi
  • Nov 25, 2019
  • Artificial Intelligence
What does Googles’ Quantum Supremacy describes? title banner

A few months back, a controversy broke constraints walls in the technological world when Google claimed “Quantum Supremacy” being achieved, Google discussed the complete experiments through a paper “Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor”.

 

Research paper described that team conducted experiments on the new quantum machine, code-named as “Sycamore” that exhibits the leading benchmark. In reaching this milestone, Sycamore manifests the entire system of quantum strength and has the consequences in other technological fields as well.

 

Surrounded by several controversies, Google’s archrival is leading in quantum dominance, in this blog, we will explore “Quantum Supremacy” more in detail including consequences of quantum computing in comparison to classical computing, its impact on different industries and more leading inventions in quantum technologies.   

 

 

Introduction

 

There is always a disagreement in the scientific community expressing concern in the role and consequences of existing technology. And hence the same with Quantum Supremacy, it has to do with the functionality of specific computations, like taking adequate time classical computers can solve the same task of quantum computers. 

 

However, the time for such specific calculations would result in inappropriately for real-world problems.

 

You might have heard when Google disclosed Quantum Supremacy, Google claims that;

 

  1. Sycamore took only 200 seconds to execute a prediction that the IBM Summit machine can determine in 10,000 years which is practically impossible to consider. 

  2. IBM Summit machine was considered the world’s best supercomputer before the Googles’ announcement. Nevertheless, IBM claims that their supercomputers can solve the problem in 2.5 days only which seems practical for any task.

 

Google has beaten its rivals to this milestone, despite Google-IBM’s every argument,  the fundamental of situations can’t be changed, as;

 

  • Google’s Sycamore is able to solve complex mathematical problems using different methods in comparison to classical computers. 

  • Using the google approach, quantum systems can be built that are reliable enough to solve calculations sooner.


Google claimed to achieve Quantum Supremacy and IBM challenged it.

Google vs IBM


What is Quantum Supremacy

 

John Preskill, a theoretical physicist at California Institute of Technology first neologized the term Quantum Supremacy in 2012, the generic meaning of it is to describe a moment where quantum computers could do things which are unachievable by classical computers

 

Many experts originated different theories of what it meant, the terms soon adopted in the scientific community. 

 

In simple words,” A threshold where quantum computers can do things or most complex mathematical calculations which are not answered by classical computers before is called “Quantum Supremacy”.  

 

It executes high-performance quantum physics and quantum chemistry calculations,  replaces almost all classical computers with superior quantum computers, and more important runs Shor’s algorithms for a large set of arbitrary numbers.  


 

Difference between Quantum Computers and Classical Computers

 

A quantum computer deploys a solely distinct architecture than a classical computer. 

 

In general, the classical computer uses binary bits (ones or zeros) to process and produce information, but for more complex calculations, the quantum computer uses quantum bits(qubits) that exist in both states( ones and zeros ) at a time. 

 

“Higher the number of qubits, the more the amount of information is stored in qubits.”

 

They are made of small loops of semiconductor or superconductor wires or a combination of both. Thus, quantum computers are so powerful.

 

Below are a few differences between the quantum computer and classical computer;

 

  • Unlike classical physics, in which an object could exist only at a single place at a time, whereas in quantum physics, probabilities of an object of being at different places would take into account, the existence of a single object at multiple places is called superposition.  

  • While designing a classical computer, each bit is independent of other bits, but in quantum computers, each qubit controls the other one and work together to deliver an output, this relationship is called entanglement

  • The difference can be optimized on the basis of parameters: Prediction, Determinism, and Probability

 

I make it more clear, can we just fit the initial conditions to any system and algorithms on which operators can work, then simply predict what could be possible final state, NO!!! 

 

This will not work to quantum systems, instead, we can predict how the final state will look like using the probability distribution, then execute the experiment, again and again, to match and produce that expected probability distribution.

 

Till now, classical computers (mobiles, phones, laptops) operates on Newton’s laws of motion and employing the flow of electricity to work accordingly, but with more research and development at the atomic and subatomic scale.

 

Many laws of classical physics do not apply, so unique laws of quantum physics come into play, quantum computers work on laws of quantum physics that oversees the behavior of atoms and subatoms, and also studied their behavior computationally at a tiny scale.

 

 

Quantum Supremacy is influencing industries, how

 

The ability to quickly solve difficult mathematical puzzles, Quantum Computers exhibits many industrial applications, these applications are utilized for modeling systems under extreme computers, for example, Large Hadron Collider(LHC),  BOXCAT, Quantum Checkmate, etc. 

 

Consider the case when a chemist is trying to explain very accurately some results while trying to build a big molecule and examine that on a computer(related blog: Understanding Bioinformatics as the application of Machine Learning), now calculations and explanations become tough when the same molecule becomes bigger as it can’t be just described with ordinary bits. 

 

Then the only quantum computer can help to deal on a very small scale. Quantum chemistry has an impact on the healthcare and agriculture industry and analytics in terms of molecular studies. It can help in the development of new pharmaceuticals, new materials, new energy sources, etc. 

 

Find the major applications below;

 

  • Data mining in Artificial Intelligence,

  • The core field of science to deal with a huge volume of data,

  • Improving weather foresight and climate change predictions,( referring you to study our blog on weather forecasting).

  • Planning and optimizing financial services & modeling,

  • Controlling Air traffic

  • Discovering and composing of drugs, and

  • Online security and cryptography. ( you must read about cybersecurity, its types, and threats also)  


A glimpse of multiple industrial applications with the advent of Quantum Supremacy. Quantum computers can solve difficult mathematical puzzles with various methods

Listing several industrial applications impacted under Quantum Supremacy 


There is no end of industrial application with the advent of quantum computers, it helps to crack cryptography, make large simulations easier, performing huge and complex computations speedier, boost up artificial intelligence, etc. 


 

Emerging Quantum Technologies

 

Recent electronics and communication devices depend on electrons where electrons are extremely small and agile holding the back of electronics, so in the need for a new approach in making tech smaller and faster, researchers push the boundaries and make work possible with “Quantum”. It is a science that deals with tiny energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles. 

 

Quantum technologies grew as an essential contributor to industries with excellence in quality and authenticity. Quantum technologies use the aspects of quantum superposition and entanglement(terms mentioned above) to encode and prepare information that conveys benefits to a broad range of IT industries from communication to sensing and computation. 

 

The following are the latest inventions in a new era of technologies;

 

  1. Quantum technologies implement assuring real-world applications in communication and computation devices with the help of machine learning algorithms where important meaningful information is extracted out from these devices. 

  2. It is quite possible to train an artificial neural network to efficiently detect and analyze quantum information, it depicts a way towards machine learning-based application in quantum technologies.


 


The image is showing the progress in quantum technologies under the scientific community. These development help industries in many ways.

Latest quantum technologies as a result of the quantum revolution



Conclusion

 

With the criteria of computing difficult calculation via various methods in a short time, quantum computers are designed over the lack of functionality of classical computers, Quantum Supremacy has arrived officially. 

 

This thorough review basically focuses on various edges of quantum computers, faster workability as quantum supremacy, and surfacing inventions during the era of quantum technologies. 


We can easily reproduce quantum behavior on a quantum computer, but we should be responsible enough to make it on classical computers. For more blogs in analytics and new technologies do read Analytics Steps.

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