When Artificial Intelligence (AI) And Neuroscience Meet

  • Neelam Tyagi
  • Feb 28, 2020
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Updated on: Jun 19, 2020
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To address the term “intelligence”, the human mind is the most selected precedent with an unexcelled sense for compact and real-life communication in a vibrant world. Artificial Intelligence (AI) researchers are attempting to mimic its exceptional functionality that would avail for sure by experiencing more about neuroscience

 

The amalgamation of living neural tissue with robots is termed as HYBROTS (hybrid), which permits thorough research of neural network systems that can tell future AI. The field of Neuroscience also serves remarkably from progress in AI to deal with their huge knowledge and understand Neural Intelligence (NI). 

 

Progress in neuroscience where a study of the nervous systems deliver amazing inferences into how the brain works are the key components for uncovering better AI systems, simultaneously, the exhibiting of better AI systems can drive neuroscience ahead and moreover unhitch the intrigues of the brain. 

 

In this blog, a discussion is presented on how neuroscience and artificial intelligence are helping each other. (Read our latest blog on How Instagram Uses AI and Big Data Technology?) 

 

Introduction

 

“Can a machine think?”, the mathematician Alan Turing questioned in the very first line of his original paper in 1950 that was introduced in the search for AI, the only known system was biological nervous systems that were given out complex computation.

 

It has not remained surprising that scientists in the elementary field of AI adapted to the human brain circuit as the foundation for direction.  

 

The basic circuit was designed, known as “deep network” or “deep net architecture”, this brain-inspired model is developed from successive layers of neuron-like elements, linked by flexible weights, termed as “synapses”, followed by biological analogs.

 

This model gave very transformative applications in the primary sector of AI research including computer vision, speech and voice recognition and operating complex games.

 

(Speaking of Artificial Intelligence, you can also learn more about the topic by going through some of our other blogs on the same. )

 

Let’s delve into these topics that relate AI with the human brain through neuroscience- when brain studying to itself.

 

With Early Days…….A Concise Tale of Neuroscience

 

Neuroscience is by far the most exciting branch of science because the brain is the most fascinating object in the universe. Every human brain is different - the brain makes each human unique and defines who he or she is. - Stanley B. Prusiner

 

Defining neuroscience, it is a coast of biology that is based on the knowledge of anatomy and physiology of the human brain, consists of structures, neurons, and molecules. 

 

It studies the working of the human brain in particulars of mechanics, functions, and operations in order to perform perceptible reactions. 

 

It is well known that the architecture of deep learning resembles to the human brain, designing a system that reflects the counterfeit of the human brain leads to the foundation of artificial neural networks.

 

The human brain becomes the base of the architecture of deep neural networks, however, formulating a system that reflects the duplication of the human brain was the initial center for Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The core developments in ANN relayed on the inventions and fulfillments of the neuroscience domain.

 

(Now that I mentioned Deep Neural Networks, you can also take a look at our blog on Keras tutorial: A Neural Network Library in Deep Learning)

 

The human brain had been studied on the two main theories, first is the Grandmother Cell Theory that suggests each neuron is enough in remembering dense information and interpreting difficult notions. And, the second theory says each neuron is quite simple, and the necessary information for executing difficult notions is scattered among multiple neurons. ANN follows the second theory.  

 

In brief terms, an ANN is an interpreted-computational model of a biological brain that is implemented for detecting patterns. It can be used to copy the behaviors of the brain so that cognitive neuroscientists examine whether theoretical models generate desired outputs or not, that coincide with the result of a biological neural system.   

 

 

Darwinism With Neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence

 

Sooner the AI is augmenting terrain as a precious tool in neuroscience in two ways, 

 

  • The first is technical, where AI has the ability to churn via the absurd amount of data to recognize patterns, it follows the methods that can operate and make sense of brain-based activities at a pace. 

 

  • The second one is algorithms that hugely evolve brain-like outcomes, they become focal points to examine basic and underlying ideas in neuroscience.

 

Ideally, follow the high-context of what we think a brain can do, and how algorithms execute their computation is completely different from us.  

 

Neuroscience can aid to validate the extending AI techniques, an algorithm has explored those mimics an existing function in the brain, it doesn’t mean that it is the correct approach for a computational system but suggests that something important has been discovered and where neuroscience help in approving the model or algorithm in terms of functioning.  

 

Neuroscience delivers quality and compact reference of inspirations for the latest algorithms and architecture to implement when conspiring artificial brains. 

 

From the view of human cognition, sometimes a person forgets the things that don’t value to him, but in new AI research, based on logical and theoretical-mathematical models have overlooked the conventional approaches to AI, neuroscience augments these approaches by classifying the biological computation that is crucial to cognitive functions.   

 

 

Exceptional Features to Imitate

 

The collusion of artificial intelligence and neuroscience delivers a comprehension of the mechanisms of the human brain that produce human cognition. Artificial intelligence has a crucial role to perform in research as AI converges on the system that generates intelligence and cognition. (also read the related blog on Artificial Intelligence How is Artificial Intelligence (AI) Making TikTok Tick? )

 

Human cognition is a novel because it blends base descriptions with the computational richness, examining and simulating neural architecture can concede how they substantiated in the brain. By means, these architectures use cognitive methods that might also give answers to elementary problems that come during the study of recognition.  

 

On the other part, human knowledge embodies itself as a linkage between neurons that can be captured and produced by various cognitive skills, here, find listed exceptional features below that AI started to imitate (cognitive functions of the brain);

 

1. Attentiveness: This is one precise ability of the human brain. When a brain mechanism permits one to concentrate on a specific task and avoid surroundings, then attentiveness mechanism comes into action.

 

This is the latest source of inspiration to follow in deep learning models like Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) or deep generative models.

 

E.g. CNN models have the ability to obtain a simplified depiction of the input and ignore unnecessary information that enhances their property of classification in the images.

 

2. Sequential recollection: When to memorize life stories such as situations or places, a brained-skill is utilized known as sequential recollections (episodic memory). AI research team is trying to consolidate schemas caused by episodic memory into reinforcement learning

 

In order to collect specific events in terms of actions and rewards and choose the latest actions similar to input of the current situation and prior stored events in the memory, in last use reward connected to previous events into account.


The image depicts the exceptional features of human intelligence that AI needs to acquire.

Human cognitive features that AI researchers imitate


3. Endless acquirements: Being a human, we have the skill to acquire endless tasks without drawing a blank in prior knowledge. On the other hand, the neural network undergoes the difficulty of the tragic letting slip of memories.

 

As parameters of neural network attempt to obtain the optimal state for executing the second of two continuous tasks, rewriting the arrangement to permit one for performing. 

 

(Now that I mentioned neural network, you can also take a look at our latest blog on the topic)

 

Also, the newest technique in deep learning isElastic Weight Consolidation (EWC)followed by the concept of endless learning, this method reduces the learning of subpart of weights distinguished as important to previous tasks, and hence securing these parameters to past attained solutions. 

 

It lets numerous tasks learn without an expansion in the capacity of the network while weights distributed between tasks with the relevant arrangements and EWC algorithms help deep networks to foster endless acquisitions at a huge range.

 

4. Visualization and Preparation: Humans are able to predict and speculate about the future. Most deep learning models remain in reactive forms that are unable for long term results. AI researchers have centered on simulation-based preparation for deep generative models.

 

New designs have been introduced in recent research work that shows the ability to produce locally continuous sequences of generated samples that reveal a spatial portrait of the new genuine environments.

 

5. Inference: Human knowledge or cognition is famous as he can learn new ideas by getting conclusions from prior experience using elementary insights. Similarly, deep learning algorithms draw inferences from a massive amount of data by training dataset. 

 

In AI programs, deep generative models and probability-based methods get combined to initiate brain-followed insights mechanisms, the models now can make inference instead of the shortage of data and produce new data-samples form an original example.

 

 

Conclusion

 

The cloverleaf of neuroscience and research in artificial intelligence is awarding strength to the amazing and fascinating technological growth and developments to the next decade. Even though the link between AI and neuroscience depicts a bi-directional relationship. 

 

Where the human mind is an inspiration for the foundation of neural networks, the advances in AI-research also support neuroscientists in the better understanding realm of the brain. In fact, the new generation of the neural network is going beyond the basic linkage of neurons and the brain, and exhilarating more elementary units of human intelligence.  

 

Hopefully, this blog can throw light on the notorious relationship between neuroscience and artificial intelligence(AI) research. Never miss a single analytical update from Analytics Steps, share this blog on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

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