In today's world, more and more customers are becoming aware of their surroundings and also accountable for their environment. Each brand is constantly in need to communicate sustainable management and direct its actions under the 'green' banner, communicating its values through concrete choices, creating solutions that look at global welfare, and through specific actions to reduce expenses, showing a green marketing strategy, and eco-sustainable image.
According to a Unilever survey, one-third of customers (33 percent) opt for socially and environmentally focused purchases from brands.
This led to the emergence of a new marketing arena, with firms that demonstrate their credentials for sustainability having a 966 billion euro opportunity. Green marketing is this new domain.
What is green marketing?
Green marketing (also known as eco-marketing or sustainable marketing) is the practice of marketing products based on their environmental benefits.
It is a practice of marketing the products that are environmentally friendly in themselves and have green benefits, or the eco-friendly business practices that are used for its production.
Green marketing refers in an economic sense to all efforts that contribute to the creation, marketing, and promotion of products and services that can have a lower environmental impact than the alternatives on the market.
The aim is to establish the stage of manufacture, marketing, and usage of the product so that consumers are persuaded to opt for ecologically responsible and sustainable consumption.
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Evolution of Green Marketing
The green marketing concept was first presented in 1975 in a seminar on Ecological Marketing in the literature held by the American Marketing Association (AMA). In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the term green marketing became prominent. In the 1980s, the first green marketing wave took place. The tangible milestone for the first green marketing wave was released in the form of books labeled Green Marketing.
These books were by Ken Pattie (1992) in the United Kingdom, and by Jacquelyn Ottman (1993) in the US. The development of green marketing has three steps, according to Peattie (2001). During this period, green marketing developed.
The first phase was known as “ecological” green marketing, and throughout this period all marketing actions helped to resolve environmental problems.
The second phase was green marketing "environmentally," where clean technologies were focused, which involves the conception of new innovative products, which take care of pollution and waste problems.
The third phase was green marketing "sustainable." In the late 1990s and early 2000, it came to prominence. This was the consequence of the term sustainable development defined as "the ability of future generations to meet their own requirements without sacrificing the needs of today."
Objectives Of Green Marketing
Every part of the company, from production, packaging to publicity and relations, is touched by green marketing. It aims to focus on the one goal, profit through sustainable development, in every marketing approach.
In opposition to popular assumptions, green marketing focuses not only on the protection of the environment through the promotion of green products but also on how these green items can be sold for maximum profit.
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What is Green Marketing Mix?
Like traditional marketing, companies employ green marketing blends to take advantage of marketing elements and receive a target audience response. The green marketing mix’ four p's are:
Green Marketing Mix
Product: The items should be designed and developed to use fewer resources and are free of pollution, moreover they include no poisonous substance, which can be harmful to their use. In addition, the product must promote precious resource preservation.
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Price: Prices play an important part in green markets, since clients pay the extra cost, only if they think they obtain the best quality items, in terms of design, performance, appeal, aroma or anything else.
It is commonly known that production of any type requires energy and also generates waste. Green marketing could therefore be an excellent marketing activity that the firm has embraced.
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Green Marketing Strategies
Enterprises that genuinely work to save the environment and give the community back usually win a lot of customer respect and loyalty. You can adopt any of these, or all of these 5 green marketing strategies if you want to run such an organization.
1. Green Design
Green design is the Green Marketing Strategy that is most effective when the product and/or service are first sustainable. One example is a solar water heater, which can possibly reduce energy use by 70% simply due to its design.
2. Green Positioning
Green positioning is a strategy for brand positioning in which the firm presents its value for sustainability and seeks to establish itself as a cautious organization. The objective of such a company is to obtain certifications and to open its doors to the market for green consumers in cooperation with green groups.
Body Shop, which never uses its products in animals and also makes its resources properly, is a great example of green positioning. The company also employs commercials that do not feature women's photos and raises donations to promote worldwide awareness of issues such as HIV and domestic abuse.
Green Marketing Strategies
3. Green Pricing
Green pricing is another green marketing method that firms employ to make their services more attractive. This strategy focuses principally on emphasizing how green services can help clients conserve money or other resources. A green pricing example may be a company that sells CNG automobiles to illustrate how cost-effective it would be to have a CNG car compared to fuel cars.
4. Green Logistics
Green logistics encompasses the company's initiatives to reduce the ecological impact from point of origin to point of consumption of all logistics activities. If you manage an eCommerce site or a green products business, you have an efficient green marketing approach to get your items to clients.
Amazon implements the so-called frustration-free packaging green Logistics Strategy. The Frustration-free packaging is an easy-to-open recycled packaging that employs fewer non-wired packaging materials, plastic ties, plastic coil boxes.
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5. Green Disposal
Green disposal could be a great green marketing approach for companies that produce a lot of waste material, where they can boast of the sustainability of disposal procedures to lessen the environmental and human effect.
Green Marketing Opportunities
In India, around 25% of the consumers prefer environmentally friendly products, and around 28% may be considered health conscious. Therefore, green marketers have diversified to a fairly sizable segment of consumers to cater to.
1. Social Responsibility
Many companies have begun to realise that they need to be environmentally friendly. They believe that environmental and profit-related objectives are achieved in compliance with the notion of extended producer responsibility (EPR).
2. Governmental Pressure
The government and society at large are framed in a range of regulations to safeguard consumers. In order to decrease the manufacture of hazardous items, the Indian government has also created a legislative framework. These reductions in the production and consumption of hazardous goods by the industries, include environmentally detrimental items, such as banning plastic bags, banning smoking in public locations, etc.
Green Marketing Opportunities
3. Competitive Pressure
The desire of companies to preserve their competitive position was another key influence in the environmental marketing sector. In many instances, companies monitor and strive to copy competitors to promote their environmental behavior. This competitive pressure has, in certain cases, led a whole industry to change and therefore to minimize its harmful environmental behavior.
4. Cost Reduction
Reducing dangerous waste can save significant costs. Many companies sometimes build a symbiotic relationship by using garbage generated by one company as economic raw material by another.
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Principles of Green Marketing
Principles of Green Marketing
Customer Value Marketing: According to this concept, rather than only altering product packaging or making a large investment in the publicity, the company should assign its resources which add value to the product or service that it offers. This is because the customers will also be valued if the value is added to the goods.
Innovative Marketing: The third concept, i.e. inventive marketing, is aimed at genuine product and marketing advancements. We all know that the world is changing constantly and that is how the clients taste and preferences. The corporation should therefore continually search for new and improved measures to prevent easy loss of consumers.
Societal Marketing: According to this theory, firm marketing decisions must take into consideration of consumer wishes and interests, company needs, and social welfare.
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Green marketing, therefore, demands not just environmentally friendly but also socially good products and services.
Green Marketing vs. Greenwashing
Green marketing presents positive environmental principles without these ideals genuinely being included in the beliefs of the company. It means constructing a counterfeit image of the corporation to often conceal the very severe environmental impact it has. Greenwashing in the green marketing sector is essentially deceptive advertising.
That is exactly the reverse of greenwashing which strives to "green" ordinary business.Such advantages are quite dangerous. Consumers demand to see environmental sustainability, but they are also unwilling to believe in the whole truth of their statements. This is why the creation of an image of a business requires steadiness and, above all, coherence. Appearing to the environment that does not exist might be highly harmful for the reputation of a corporation.
Therefore openness and consistency between a company's objectives and its actions must be constantly demonstrable in order to avoid the risk of greenwashing and all the goals reached must be certified.More consumers are now asking for businesses and products to meet environmental sustainability standards in green marketing, and media attention to these concerns is increasingly impacting.
Ultimately, greenwashing damages the reputation of a firm since consumers will learn that the company or products are not as green as they promote them.
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Green Marketing Examples
1. Whole Foods
Whole Foods is an Amazon's American store that sells organic products. The company has been built in line with green consumers' demands, desires, and demographics.
The company is recognized as a brand that has artificial flavors, colors, conservation agents, and sweeteners and uses none of them in their foods. Furthermore, the company has a green mission where they are doing modest but large initiatives to protect the environment, such as recycled documents to be used for composting, carpooling, no plastic bags, etc.
2. The Body Shop
The Body Shop has become a brand dedicated to environmental conservation. They are never tested on animals and are also brand certified for Leaping bunny. Furthermore, the firm produces its Tea tree oil from a cooperative made up of 380 small farmers, a group of Kenya Organic Oil Farmers Association (KOOFA).
3. Love Beauty and Planet
As you know, Unilever has several brands and Love Beauty is one of them, a multinational consumer products firm. The brand was designed to enhance the beauty of customers and the world. Beauty and its environmental impact are assumed by the corporation to be inseparable. They have therefore developed shampoo bottles, hand lotions, and other recyclable plastic items.
Green marketing involves progressive ideas which are currently so vital for our globe, where pollution from water and air, cruelty to animals, and other environmental concerns are affected in animal testing. Your brand empowers people to live better, aware, and accountable lives by being green.
You can let your target audience know via green marketing that you are concerned with these same issues. You may boost your reputation for your brand, invest in a cause you care for, and contribute to.
Green marketing therefore essentially focuses on developing and advertising goods and services that meet the demands of customers in terms of quality, performance, accessibility, availability, and safety, but without causing any damage to the environment. I believe hopefully I've been able to shed some light on your understanding of green marketing.