Imagine a child whose first words were, “Ball”. Now, the child goes about pointing at different objects and saying the word - ball. His/her parents say “Yes, that is a ball” or “No, that is not a ball”.
The process that goes on here is the clarification of a difficult concept - the idea of a ball. How exactly is it being done? By creating a sequence in which each layer of concept is built using information obtained from the previous layer.
That is what deep learning is all about. It is a type of machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) system that works on the automation of predictive analytics. This blog covers the basic techniques of deep learning, and how it is helping civilization move forward as we speak.
Deep learning is an AI and ML technique that mimics how people acquire different kinds of information. Data science, which covers the subjects of statistics and predictive modeling, incorporates deep learning as a key component.
Deep learning is highly useful for data scientists who are responsible for gathering, analyzing, and comprehending massive volumes of data. So what deep learning really does, is that it speeds up and simplifies the process.
Deep learning algorithms are built in a structure of escalating programs of complex nature and abstraction, unlike typical machine learning algorithms, which are linear.
To learn more about deep learning, watch this:
Deep Learning Techniques
There are several types of deep learning techniques that can effectively and reliably solve issues that are too difficult for the human brain to solve. They are listed in the paragraphs below.
1. Classic Neural Networks
Multilayer perceptrons, where the neurons are linked to the continuous network, are widely used to identify Fully Connected Neural Networks. Fran Rosenblatt, an American psychologist, created it in 1958. It entails the transformation of the model into basic binary data inputs.
The following are the three functions incorporated in this model:
Linear function: The term "linear function" refers to a single line that multiplies its inputs with a constant multiplier.
Non-linear function: The non-linear function is further separated into three subsets:
Sigmoid curve - The sigmoid curve is a function that has a range of 0 to 1 and is viewed as an S-shaped curve.
Hyperbolic Tangent - The S-shaped curve with a range of -1 to 1 is known as the hyperbolic tangent (tanh).
ReLU (Rectified Linear Unit): It's a single-point function that returns 0 if the input value is less than the specified value and the linear multiple if the input value is greater.
2. Convolutional Neural Networks
The traditional artificial neural network model, CNN, is a sophisticated and high-potential variant. It's designed to handle increasing levels of complexity, preprocessing, and data compilation. It is based on the sequence in which neurons in the visual cortex of an animal's brain are arranged.
CNN’s are one of the most versatile models for specializing in both image and non-image data. CNN’s are divided into four layers:
3. Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs)
RNNs were initially developed to aid in the prediction of sequences; for example, the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) algorithm is well-known for its versatility. These networks are only based on data sequences with varied input lengths.
For the present estimate, the RNN uses the information learned from its previous state as an input value. As a result, it can assist in attaining selective memory in a network, allowing for successful stock price performance management or other time-based data systems.
For the current prediction, the RNN uses the knowledge learned from its previous state as an input value. As a result, it can assist in achieving short-term memory in a network, allowing for effective stock price change management or other time-based data systems.
As previously stated, there are two general types of RNN designs that aid in problem analysis. They are as follows:
- LSTMs: Memory-based models for predicting data in temporal sequences. Input, Output, and Forget are the three gates.
- Gated RNNs: These are also effective for memory-based data prediction of temporal sequences. Update and Reset are the two gates. The convolution layers are responsible for the previous layer's cluster of neurons.
4. Boltzmann Machines
This model has no predetermined direction. System monitoring, binary suggestion platforms, and particular dataset analysis all leverage this deep learning method.
It is a one-of-a-kind deep learning approach for generating model parameters, with nodes organized in a circular pattern. It is distinct from the other deep learning network models and is also referred to as stochastic.
Boltzmann Machines have a learning method that aids in the discovery of interesting features in binary vector datasets. In networks with multiple layers of feature detectors, the learning method is normally slow, but it can be improved faster by incorporating a learning layer of feature detectors.
Boltzmann machines are commonly used to address a variety of computing issues. For example, the weights on the connections in a search problem can be specified and utilized to represent the cost function of the optimization problem as explained by Analytics India Magzine.
5. Transfer Learning
It is the process of fine-tuning a previously taught system or model to execute new and more precise jobs. This strategy is advantageous since it requires much less data than other ways and helps decrease long processing times.
Transfer learning is related to issues such as multi-tasking and concept drift, but it is not solely a study of deep learning.
Nonetheless, given the massive resources necessary to train deep learning models or the big and complex datasets on which deep learning models are taught, transfer learning is popular in deep learning. In deep learning, transfer learning only works if the model characteristics gained in the first task are general.
(Suggested reading: Transfer learning with CNN)
6. Generative Adversarial Networks
It is a hybrid of two different deep learning neural network techniques: a Generator and a Discriminator. Although the Generator Network generates fictitious data, the Discriminator aids in distinguishing between actual and fictitious data.
Because the Generator continues to produce false data that is identical to genuine data - and the Discriminator continues to recognize real and unreal data – both networks are competitive. The Generator network will produce simulated data to the authentic photographs in a case where an image library is required. After that, it essentially creates a deconvolution neural network.
GANs are an exciting and rapidly evolving field that fulfills the promise of generative models by generating realistic examples across a variety of problem domains, most notably in image-to-image translation tasks such as converting summer to winter or day to night photos, and in generating photorealistic photos of objects, scenes, and people that even humans can't tell are fake.
Autoencoders, one of the most widely used deep learning algorithms, operates autonomously depending on its inputs before applying an activation function and decoding the final output. As a result of the bottleneck, fewer categories of data are produced, and the underlying data structures are utilized to the greatest extent possible.
An autoencoder is made up of three parts:
- Encoder: An encoder is a fully connected, feedforward neural network that compresses the input image into a latent space representation and encodes it as a compressed representation in a lower dimension. The deformed representation of the original image is the compressed image.
- Code: The reduced representation of the input that is supplied into the decoder is stored in this section of the network.
- Decoder: Like the encoder, the decoder is a feedforward network with a structure identical to the encoder. This network is in charge of reassembling the input from the code to its original dimensions.
The input is compressed and stored in the layer called Code by the encoder, and then the original input is decompressed from the code by the decoder. The autoencoder's principal goal is to provide an output that is identical to the input.
It's worth noting that the decoder's architecture is the inverse of the encoder's. This isn't a requirement, but it's common practice. The only stipulation is that the input and output dimensions must be identical.
Deep learning has a lot to contribute. All it takes is a lot of computational capabilities and training datasets. Hope this blog has managed to cover the most important deep learning techniques that have been developed.
All the conversation and research surrounding deep learning show how far we've come in terms of establishing true machine intelligence. Because of the technology's limitations, there has been an increase in research on easily interpretable AI. Deep learning is still the greatest solution for the challenges we're trying to address in business as well as in automation.
(Must read: Deep learning applications)